日立製作所、小型の超音波発信機を用いて、血管内のカテーテル先端位置を 検出する基礎技術を開発

超音波診断装置を活用した血管内カテーテル治療の時間短縮と低被ばく化をめざす


 株式会社日立製作所(執行役社長兼CEO:東原 敏昭/以下、日立)は、カテーテル治療の時間短縮と低被ばく化に向け、小型の超音波発信機を用いて血管内のカテーテル先端位置を検出する基礎技術を開発した。

 カテーテル先端に小型の超音波発信機を取り付け、超音波診断装置(以下、エコー*1)で、その位置をリアルタイムに検出します。現在のカテーテル治療は、主にX線造影により病変とカテーテル先端の位置をモニターしながら行われるが、本技術を用いることで、X線では検出が難しかった病変*2にも対応が容易となり、治療時間短縮と低被ばく化が期待される。

 今後、日立は、患者負担の少ないカテーテル治療の実現をめざし、医療機関、医療機器メーカーなどとも連携した研究に取り組んでいくという。 動脈硬化や糖尿病などが原因で発症する血管狭窄*3の治療では、患者の負担を少なくするため、従来の外科手術(バイパス手術)から、血管内の閉塞部を広げるカテーテル治療*4のニーズが高まっている。現在のカテーテル治療では、血管内の病変とカテーテル先端の位置をX線によりモニターしながら行うことが主流となっているが、完全閉塞病変など一部の病変の検出が難しく、また被ばくを伴うという課題があった。

 これらの課題を解決するため、X線撮影の一部をエコー撮影で代替したカテーテル治療も行われている。しかしながら、エコーでモニターできる範囲は狭く(数cm四方程度)、また、体内に挿入されているカテーテル(ガイドワイヤー*5等)先端位置の検出が容易ではなかった。 そこで日立は、ガイドワイヤー先端に取り付け可能な小型の超音波発信機と、エコーにより超音波発信機の位置をリアルタイムに検出する基礎技術を開発した。特長は以下の通りとなる。

1. 治療用の細径ガイドワイヤー先端に取り付け可能な小型の超音波発信機
 ガイドワイヤー先端に取り付け可能な超音波発信機を開発した。本発信機は、超音波を広角方向に発生させることで、エコーによる位置検出を容易にしている。また、治療に使われるガイドワイヤーの直径は0.5 mm未満であるため、直径0.45 mmのガイドワイヤーも合わせて開発した。これらにより、発信機の細径化を図りつつ、発生する超音波信号強度を維持している。

2. ガイドワイヤー先端位置を広範囲でリアルタイムに検出可能な信号検出アルゴリズム
 ガイドワイヤー先端部に取り付けた超音波発信機がエコーの撮影可能範囲(数cm四方)内に位置する場合、具体的な位置を特定することが可能だが、今回、ガイドワイヤー先端部がエコーの撮影可能範囲外にある場合でも、その位置(方向)を提示できる技術を開発した。新たに開発した音波伝搬プロセスの幾何学的特性を考慮した信号検出アルゴリズムを用いることで、広範囲(10 cm立方程度)でガイドワイヤー先端位置をリアルタイムに医師に提示することが可能になる。

 国立大学法人 大阪大学の協力のもと、イヌの腹部大動脈を対象として開発技術を検証したところ、生体内においてカテーテル先端位置を良好に検出できることを確認した。

 今後日立は、動脈硬化や糖尿病などによる下肢血管疾患を対象として、現場の医師や医療機関、さらにカテーテルを取り扱う医療機器メーカーなどと連携した研究を進め、患者負担の少ないカテーテル治療の実現をめざしていくという。 本成果は、2019年2月5日にアメリカ合衆国のサンフランシスコで開催されるSPIE Photonics Westで発表する予定との事。  

*1 エコー撮影機: 超音波を用いて組織からの反射(エコー)を映像化することで、身体の断面を画像化する医療機器。
*2 完全閉塞病変は造影剤が通らないため、X線造影では血管が視認できない。
*3 狭窄: コレステロール等による石灰化などで血管が狭まり、血流を阻害すること。さまざまな疾患の原因となる。
*4 カテーテル治療: 狭窄・閉塞した血管内にカテーテルを挿入して閉塞部を拡張させて血流を改善する治療方法。
*5 ガイドワイヤー: カテーテルなどの医療機器を血管患部まで運ぶためのワイヤー。

●お問い合わせ
株式会社日立製作所 研究開発グループ
http://www.hitachi.co.jp/recruit/newgraduate/field-navi/rd/

問い合わせフォーム:
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